To perform alignments, the L-708 Laser and A-512 Target must be inserted into their A-514 Self-Centering Bore Adapters. But first, both the laser and target A-514 adapter legs must be set to the nominal bore diameter using the A-514GS Leg-Setting Gage. The required accuracy for setting the legs to the bore diameter is not very high: about 0.05 mm. The key to achieving alignment accuracy for the A-514 adapters is to make all the legs the same length, which is easy to do with the A-514GS. The reason that setting the legs to the exact bore ID is not critical is because the A-514 Adapters can handle a large range of bore diameter changes: up to .020" (0.5 mm) and still give accurate alignment results.
Once the A-514 legs are set for both adapters, then the L-708/A-514 Adapter are inserted into the first (near) reference bore. The A-512/A-514 target/adapter are then placed in the second (far) reference bore and the R-1307 Readout is connected. Next, the angular adjustments on the L-708 are adjusted to tilt the laser beam to center it to the A-512/A-514. The laser is now concentric to the end bores and the A-512/A-514 target/adapter are moved to the inner bores for alignment checks. Since the laser provides live data, any alignment errors can be adjusted and the user can watch the readings update live in the readout.
How the A-512 Target and A-514 Adapters Work
A-516 Self-Centering 2-Axis Bore Target
The A-512 Target is designed so that the PSD is centered axially between the four feet of the A-514 Adapter, two of which are offset axially from the other two (see the graphic on Page 2). This, in effect, puts the PSD on the pivot point of the adapter and allows the angle of incidence to the laser beam to vary by up to 45º. This means even if the bore diameter changes, the A-514 will still self-center giving an accurate measurement of the bore's alignment. To insert the target into the bore, attach the handle to the target and tip the target forward, which allows it to easily slide into the bore. Release the handle/insertion pole and the target/adapter "jam" into the bore, finding the center automatically (see picture bottom right). The weight of the handle keeps the target centered in the bore.
Measuring Bore Alignment
The A-512 target is then placed in the desired bore for measurement, and once it is properly centered, the readout displays the bore misalignment. To truly align a bore to a centerline, two sets of readings are needed: one in the front and one in the back of the bore. The average of these two sets of reading indicates how far off center the bore is relative to the reference bores. The difference between the readings is how much angle the bore has to the reference bore centerline. To align a bore, both ends of the bore must be adjusted to zero, an easy task given that the readings from the target are live.
High-Tolerance Bore Alignment
For high-tolerance bore alignment applications, the remaining target sensor concentricity error (TSCE) must be calculated using the NORMIN method. TSCE is calculated by taking two readings, one with the target at the 12 o'clock position and a second at 6 o'clock (horizontal and vertical calculations are done separately). The second reading is added to the first and the result is divided by 2. This is the TSCE and shows how far off the center of the target is from the center of the bore. This calculation creates an offset that can then be subtracted from all subsequent bore measurements to get the true misalignment number. Our Bore9 software can easily calculate TSCE and even automatically remove it from the displayed reading.
Using Bore9 Software
Hamar Laser’s new Bore9 software supports all of Hamar's past and present bore alignment equipment to create a powerful tool for measuring and aligning up to 50 bores. This comprehensive and easy-to-use program measures bore straightness (axis centering) and diameter change when using our targets in measuring mode.
Bore9 features an easy 5-step process (described briefly below) that guides the user through the alignment process from setup to results. These results can be plotted, saved, and exported to an Excel spreadsheet.
- In Step 1 – Bore Setup, the user enters setup information for the alignment check such as number of bores, distance between bore, bore diameters and bore straightness tolerances.
- In Step 2 - Target Mounting Error, an easy procedure is followed to remove mounting errors. Mounting errors must be compensated for in order to achieve accurate results in bore and spindle work. Bore9 uses the NORMIN method developed by Hamar Laser to quickly and precisely cancel out these errors and eliminate the need for complicated, expensive fixtures. The word NORMIN is a contraction of NORMal-INverted, which briefly describes the method.
- In Step 3 – Laser Setup, on-screen instructions guide the user through setting up the laser and making it parallel to reference points.
- In Step 4 – Record Data, bore straightness data is recorded. There are several different sets of data that can be taken in this step.
- In Step 5 –Results, results of the recorded data are plotted on a graph and a least-squares, best-fit data algorithm is applied to generate the straightness results and to determine if they are in or out of tolerance. Plot data can be changed to reflect the position of the centerline of the bores relative to the end bores, selected bore numbers, the laser beam or a “Best Fit” line. The data for each point is recalculated automatically based upon which references are chosen. Reports are also generated in this step and can be customized to the four different bore references. Comments may be added and the report can be printed with a summary, a graph of the vertical and horizontal straightness, comments and a table showing the recorded data.
Bore Alignment Procedure Using the L-708, A-512, A-514 and Bore9
The L-708 Bore Laser provides a straight reference line to which any bore can be aligned and measured and allows centering to .0012" (0.03 mm). Setup is fast and easy. The A-514 Self-Centering Bore Adapters for both the laser and target are put on a leg-setting gage to adjust the legs to the desired bore radius. The L-708 and A-512 Targets are inserted into their bore adapters and then the laser and target assemblies are inserted into the two reference bores where they self-center. The laser’s angular adjustments are used to set/tilt the laser to zero on the target, establishing the reference bore centerline. The target can be moved (or second target added) to inner bores for alignment checks. Since the alignment data in the readout updates in real time, any errors can be adjusted using the target as a live indicator.
Step 1: Setup
- Open Bore9 and select the target and computer interface. Note that Bore9 is not required, but it is recommended.
- Enter the number of bores, the distance between the bores, the bore diameters, and select the alignment tolerances. Note that you can select bore-to-bore alignment tolerance as well as an overall tolerance.
- Measure the nominal Bore ID. Use the A-514G Leg-Setting Gage to set the legs of the A-514 Bore Adapters for both the laser and target to the nominal Bore ID.
- Insert the L-708 into the first A-514 Bore Adapter and insert the laser/adapter into the first (near) reference bore. Ensure that the level vial on top of the adapter is level. This orients the laser’s Vertical and Horizontal adjustment axes to the Vertical and Horizontal axes of the bores.
- Insert the A-512 Bore Target into the second A-514 Bore Adapter and then insert the target/adapter into the second (far) reference bore. Ensure that the level vial on top of the adapter is level. This orients the target’s Vertical and Horizontal adjustment axes to the Vertical and Horizontal axes of the bores. Connect the R-1307 Readout and power it on.
Step 2: Target Mounting Error
- Rotate the target 180 degrees (INVERTED position) and reinsert into the near bore. Press Record to record data for the target in the INVERTED position. A Mounting Error Offset will be calculated and applied to each target reading. This will remove any remaining centering errors in the target and adapter. Note: Step 2: Target Mounting Error of the Bore9 program may be skipped if measuring bore straightness or alignment tolerances are greater than .0005” (0.013 mm).
Step 3: Laser Buckin
- Select the laser mounting by clicking the Internal Mount graphic. Click Next.
- Select the target to use for the laser setup. Click Next.
Follow the on-screen instructions to perform the laser setup.
L-708 Target inserted in the A-514 Bore Adapter
- Steer the laser using the Pitch (V) & Yaw (H) adjustment knobs on the L-708 so the reading on the R-1307 is zero. The laser is now concentric to the centerline of the two end (reference) bores.
- Click Finish to go to Step 4—Record Data.
Step 4: Record Data
- Move the A-512 Target/A-514 Adapter to the inner bores to measure for alignment and press Record. Continue moving the target to each bore until all data is taken.
Step 5: Results
- Step 5—Results displays a graph of the results and a summary of the alignment.