General Setup (Step-by-Step procedure begins on Page 7)
To perform alignments, the L-706 laser is mounted in the L-111 Laser Stand and the L-102 Laser Beam Translator is attached. The L-111 has coarse angular adjustment capabilities and the L-102 can translate (move) the laser beam up/down and left/right without changing the angle.
The entire assembly is then mounted near the first reference bore. The A-512/A-514 target/adapter is placed in the first bore and the L-102 Beam Translator is adjusted to center the laser beam to the target. The target is then moved to the far reference bore and the angular adjustments are used to tilt the laser to the center of the target. This process is repeated until the target reads zero at both locations. The laser is now parallel to the end reference bores and the target can be moved to (or a second target can be placed in) the inner bores for alignment checks. Since the laser provides live data, any alignment errors can be ad¬justed and the user can watch the readings update live in the readout.
Target fixturing can consist of a 3-legged, spider-type fixture with a flange adapter (T-225) or a 4-legged, self-centering adapter (A-514).
How the A-512 Target and A-514 Adapters Work
The A-512 Target is designed so that the PSD is centered axially between the four feet of the A-514 Adapter, two of which are offset axially from the other two (see the graphic on Page 2). This, in effect, puts the PSD on the pivot point of the adapter and allows the angle of incidence to the laser beam to vary by up to 45º. This means even if the bore diameter changes, the A-514 will still self-center giving an accurate measurement of the bore's alignment. To insert the target into the bore, attach the handle to the target and tip the target forward, which allows it to easily slide into the bore. Release the handle/insertion pole and the target/adapter "jam" into the bore, finding the center automatically (see picture bottom right). The weight of the handle keeps the target centered in the bore.
Measuring Bore Alignment
A-516 Self-Centering 2-Axis Bore Target
The A-512/A-514 target/adapter are then placed in the desired bore for measurement, and once it is properly centered, the readout displays the bore misalignment. To truly align a bore to a centerline, two sets of readings are needed: one in the front and one in the back of the bore. The average of these two sets of reading indicates how far off center the bore is relative to the reference bores. The difference between the readings is how much angle the bore has to the reference bore centerline. To align a bore, both ends of the bore must be adjusted to zero, an easy task given that the readings from the target are live.
High-Tolerance Bore Alignment
For high-tolerance bore alignment applications, the remaining target sensor concentricity error (TSCE) must be calculated using the NORMIN method. TSCE is calculated by taking two readings, one with the target at the 12 o'clock position and a second at 6 o'clock (horizontal and vertical calculations are done separately). The second reading is added to the first and the result is divided by 2. This is the TSCE and shows how far off the center of the target is from the center of the bore. This calculation creates an offset that can then be subtracted from all subsequent bore measurements to get the true misalignment number. Our Bore9 software can easily calculate TSCE and even automatically remove it from the displayed reading.
Using Bore9 Software
Hamar Laser’s new Bore9 software supports all of Hamar's past and present bore alignment equipment to create a powerful tool for measuring and aligning up to 50 bores. This comprehensive and easy-to-use program measures bore straightness (axis centering) and diameter change when using our targets in measuring mode.
Bore9 features an easy 5-step process (described briefly below) that guides the user through the alignment process from setup to results. These results can be plotted, saved, and exported to an Excel spreadsheet.
- In Step 1 – Bore Setup, the user enters setup information for the alignment check such as number of bores, distance between bore, bore diameters and bore straightness tolerances.
- In Step 2 - Target Mounting Error, an easy procedure is followed to remove mounting errors. Mounting errors must be compensated for in order to achieve accurate results in bore and spindle work. Bore9 uses the NORMIN method developed by Hamar Laser to quickly and precisely cancel out these errors and eliminate the need for complicated, expensive fixtures. The word NORMIN is a contraction of NORMal-INverted, which briefly describes the method.
- In Step 3 – Laser Setup, on-screen instructions guide the user through setting up the laser and making it parallel to reference points.
- In Step 4 – Record Data, bore straightness data is recorded. There are several different sets of data that can be taken in this step.
- In Step 5 –Results, results of the recorded data are plotted on a graph and a least-squares, best-fit data algorithm is applied to generate the straightness results and to determine if they are in or out of tolerance. Plot data can be changed to reflect the position of the centerline of the bores relative to:
- the end bores
- selected bore numbers
- the laser beam
- a “Best Fit” line.
Bore Alignment Procedure Using L-706, L-111, L-102 and Bore9
Step 1: Setup
- Open Bore9 and select the target and computer interface.
- Enter the number of bores, the distance between the bores, the bore diameters, and select the alignment tolerances.
- Measure the nominal bore ID. Use the A-514G Leg-Setting Gage to set the legs of the A-514 Bore Adapter to the nominal bore ID.
Step 2: Target Mounting Error
- Insert the A-512 into the A-514 Adapter and insert them into the near bore, making sure the adapter's level vial is level. Then adjust the L-102 to zero the display and center the laser into the first reference bore. Press Record to record data for the target in the NORMAL position. Note: Step 2: Target Mounting Error of the Bore9 program may be skipped if measuring bore straightness or alignment tolerances are greater than .0005” (0.013 mm).
- Rotate the target 180 degrees (INVERTED position) and reinsert into the near bore. Press Record to record data for the target in the INVERTED position. The TSCE Mounting Error Offset will be calculated and applied to each target reading. This will remove any remaining centering errors in the target and adapter.
Step 3: Laser Buckin
- Follow the on-screen instructions to enter distances from the laser to the near bore (D1) and from the near bore to the far bore (D2). Insert the target into the near bore and re-adjust the L-102 to zero the display and center the laser into the bore. Press Record to record data for the near bore.
- Move the target to the far bore and press Record. A calculation of the laser setpoint will be made to aid the laser setup and offsets will be applied to on-screen live data.
- With buckin offsets applied in the Bore9 software, steer the laser using the Pitch and Yaw knobs (angular adjustment) on the L-706 until the H and V displays are zero.
- Repeat the process to confirm zero at both end bores. The laser is now “bucked in” (concentric) to the centerline of the near and far reference bores.
Step 4: Record Data
- Move the target to the first bore you want to measure for alignment and press Record. Continue moving the target to each bore until all data is taken.
Step 5: Results
- Step 5: Results displays a graph of the results and a summary of the alignment.